Enzymes are proteins which are catalyst in function. These are indispensable for maintenance and activity of life. All Bio- chemical reactions occurring in a living organism are dependent on the catalytic actions of enzymes, there are more than 4,000 kinds of enzymes whose actions are well known.
Enzymes are highly selective catalysis and they selectivity catalyze specified reactions with specific substrate selection. Technology for utilizing enzymes for the improvement of our life is a key feature of applied biotechnology.
Enzymes are classified into six categories based on the types of reaction catalyzed, that is, oxidoreductase, transference, hydrolyses, lyase, ligase, and isomerism.
Individual enzymes are further classified systematically based on the chemical name of the substance modified by the enzyme (substrate) and its reaction mechanism. Enzymes are named with the use of letters and numbers: EC plus four numbers representing four elements. For example, 1,4-α-D-Glucanglucanohydrolase (common name: α-amylase) is named as EC 18.104.22.168.
Today, the manufacturing of enzymes is done by fermentation route by using microbes. Microbes employed for the manufacture of enzymes are highly safe microorganisms and these are natural organisms and are non- GMO which are widely used in the manufacture of fermented foods such as beer, cheese, soy sauce, and yogurt.